Peer reviewers approved by Dr Parthasarathi Pramanik Peer reviewer comments 2 Editor who approved publication: Body fluid identification is a key component in the forensic scientists' tool box and has been carried out both at the crime scene and in the laboratory for many years. Historically, methods relied on bio chemical-based tests, many of which lacked specificity. In this review, current technologies for identifying body fluids are described including the use of RNA mRNA and miRNA , epigenetics, spectroscopic techniques such as Raman spectroscopy and micro-spectrophotometry, biosensors, and immunochromatographic methods which are outlined alongside their strengths and weaknesses. The potential for new insights into the identification of cells from new technologies such as massively parallel sequencing is explored.
Forensic body fluid identification: state of the art
[Full text] Forensic body fluid identification: state of the art | RRFMS
Blood detection[ edit ] Blood is composed of liquid plasma and serum with solid components consisting of red blood cells erythrocytes , white blood cells leukocytes , and platelets thrombocytes. The most publicized test by crime shows is the Luminol process in which a chemical is sprayed onto a surface where blood is suspected to be. Another common presumptive test is the Kastle-Meyer or Phenolphthalein test. This is a catalytic test that detects the heme group in blood that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide. It is a two step reaction where one drop of phenolphthalein reagent is added to the suspected blood sample, followed by a drop of hydrogen peroxide.
The identification of bodily fluids is known as serology. Currently, BCA serology includes blood, semen, saliva, and urine identification. Phenolphthalein The phenolphthalein test is used to presumptively test for the presence of blood. The chemicals used are ethanol, phenolphthalein, and hydrogen peroxide. Phenolphthalein testing works through a Redox reaction where the chemicals start in a reduced form.
Presumptive Tests Also known as preliminary tests, screening tests or field tests Establish the possibility that a specific bodily fluid is present Do not conclusively prove the presence of a specific substance Pros: Narrows possibilities, can be used on larger areas, and can locate possible evidence not visible to naked eye Cons: Risk of false positives and may be overly sensitive Uses:
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